What is the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale?

In this blog we will discuss what the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale is. 

We will also discuss what resilience scales are, what resilience is, and what you can do to build resilience.

What is the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale?

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was developed by Kathryn M. Conner and Jonathan R.T. Davidson.

The scale is a test that measures how well an individual is equipped to bounce back after stress and traumatic events- basically measuring their resilience.

This scale was developed as a result of the years of study and research of these two researchers in the area of PTSD. 

The scale measures things such as one’s ability to adapt to change, deal with future challenges, cope with stress, and stay focused even while under stress. 

The scale also measures how capable people are to remain optimistic even in face of failure and regulate difficult emotions and feelings such as anger, apin, and sadness.

The scale measures resilience in terms of various factors such as personal competence, ability of an individual to accept change, the influence of secure relationships with respect to reliance, as well as one’s self control, and spiritual influences with respect ot relsinece,

The items of the scale seek to assess an individual’s ability to adapt to change, deal with what comes along, cope with stress, focus and think clearly, stay motivated in the face of failure, and manage difficult emotions.

You can access this scale here

What are there different versions of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale? 

As of recent years, there are only three versions of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scales that have been authorised for clinical and research use. These version are:

  • CD-RISC-2
  • CD-RISC-10
  • CD-RISC-25

CD-RISC-2

The CD-RISC-2 is a two-item scale that is part of the longer forms of the scales like CD-RISC-10 and 25.

This scale is mostly used to measure reliance and progress of treatment in clinical settings and has been tested to be reliable and valid by various researchers over time. 

The scale is a shortened form and the items on this scale is not a complete representation of the original scale and was developed by selecting only two items which are thought to represent the true essence of resilience- adaptability and ability to bounce back. (Leslie Riopel, Postivepscyhology)

CD-RISC-10

This particular form of the Connor Davidson Resilience scale consists of a 10-item scale that is made up of only 10 of the origin 25 items developed by Drs. Campbell-Sills and Stein, at the University of California.

The items include:

  • I am able to adapt when changes occur.
  • I can deal with whatever comes my way.
  • I try to see the humorous side of things when I am faced with problems.
  • Having to cope with stress can make me stronger.
  • I tend to bounce back after illness, injury or other hardships.
  • I believe I can achieve my goals, even if there are obstacles.
  • Under pressure, I stay focused and think clearly.
  • I am not easily discouraged by failure.
  • I think of myself as a strong person when dealing with life’s challenges and difficulties.
  • I am able to handle unpleasant or painful feelings like sadness, fear, and anger. (Leslie Riopel, Postivepscyhology)

Please note that these items listed above are not the complete representation of the scale, and it is advised that you visit the official CD-RISC website for instructions and a better understanding of the scale. 

CD-RISC-25

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-25) consists of a self-report questionnaire that consists of 25 items.

The items include:

  • I am able to adapt when changes occur.
  • I have one close and secure relationship.
  • Sometimes fate or God helps me.
  • I can deal with whatever comes my way.
  • Past successes give me confidence.
  • I try to see the humorous side of things when I am faced with problems.
  • Having to cope with stress can make me stronger.
  • I tend to bounce back after illness, injury or other hardships.
  • I believe most things happen for a reason.
  • I make my best effort, no matter what.
  • I believe I can achieve my goals, even if there are obstacles.
  • Even when hopeless, I do not give up.
  • In times of stress, I know where to find help.
  • Under pressure, I stay focused and think clearly.
  • I prefer to take the lead in problem-solving.
  • I am not easily discouraged by failure.
  • I think of myself as a strong person when dealing with life’s challenges and difficulties.
  • I make unpopular or difficult decisions.
  • I am able to handle unpleasant or painful feelings like sadness, fear, and anger.
  • I have to act on a hunch.
  • I have a strong sense of purpose in life.
  • I feel like I am in control.
  • I like challenges.
  • I work to attain goals.
  • I take pride in my achievements. (Leslie Riopel, Postivepscyhology)

Please note that these items listed above are not the complete representation of the scale, and it is advised that you visit the official CD-RISC website for instructions and a better understanding of the scale. 

These items assess an individual’s ability to adapt to change, deal with what comes along, cope with stress, focus and think clearly, stay motivated in the face of failure, and manage difficult emotions.

What are resilience scales?

Resilience scales are assessment tools that seek to measure and understand an individual’s ability to bounce back, or come back on track after they have experienced some stressful event in their lives. 

These scales usually assess what factors can help develop resilience as well as how likely an individual is able to be resilient in the face of stress and bounce back mentally and physically.

These scales are often used in clinical settings to understand how resilient clients are, in what areas, and what can be done to develop resilience. 

These tools are also used in research to understand the resilience of a group or a community in the face of threats, the factors that add to reiseince, and factors that negatively impact resilience amongst other things to add to the field of knowledge related to human resilience. 

What is resilience?

Resilience refers to one’s ability to adapt and bounce back from adversity, failure, and conflict. It involves one’s ability and capacity to recover from challenges that affect us in healthy ways.

Resilience consists of a set of characteristics and contributing factors: 

Optimism is one factor that contributes to optimism where research finds that those who are optimistic tend to be more resilient as well as tend to remain resilient in the face of future resilience. 

It has also been observed that altruism and resilience are also linked positively where more resilient people tend to be more altruistic as well as people with a stronger moral compass also bounce back easier. 

Faith and Spirituality is another factor that is believed to help other people survive challenges and people who have a healthy sense of humour also have an easier time bouncing back. 

Individuals with a positive role model and stronger social support are also equipped in recline and have an easier time bouncing back after loss and disganpintments.

Another factor that impacts an individual’s ability to bounce back and resilience is the ability of an individual to leave their comfort zone and confront their fears as well as individuals who feel like they have purpose and meaning in their lives. (Acknerman, positive psychology)

How to develop resilience?

Developing resilience refers to the concept of Self-learned resilience where the individual puts effort and energy into actively and intentionally developing themselves to become more resilient. 

There are many ways of developing resilience and according to Dr. Carine Nzodom for the PsychiatricTimes, one can use losses and stress as a launchboard to develop resilience by:

  • Allowing themselves to feel and experience their emoti=ions widely and deeply. 
  • Identifying support systems and allowing oneself to relish in the support.
  • Processing emotions with the help of a therapist.
  • Being mindful of their well-being and engaging in self-care.
  • Getting enough rest and good sleep
  • Maintaining a routine.
  • Sharing their experiences with other people. 

One of the best ways to develop resilience is through the ABCDE model which was introduced by Martin Seligman in 2012 and later developed in detail by Reivich and Shatté.

This ABCDE model explains how negative emotions are linked to a weakened level of resilience and can make it hard for people to develop the ability to bounce back easier. 

Let us look at the five steps of the ABCDE model that can help people build resilience. 

  • Adversity where the focus is on recognising our own negative and unhelpful thought patterns as the adversity as well as taking notice and identifying what behaviours are also causing adversity which makes it difficult to develop resilience.

For example, one of the negative thought patterns can become something like “I can’t do it, it is too hard.” every time you fail or you face a challenge that makes you give up. 

  • Beliefs involve taking the time to understand where the negative emotions are coming from. It also refers to taking the time to understand the beliefs that feed these negative emotions. 

For example, in the earlier example, your belief can be something like “I am incapable of doing anything.” “I am not good enough.”

  • Consequences here, you will have to make an effort to understand and recognize how these negative emotions and these negative patterns of thinking are affecting you.

In the earlier example, it can be affecting your ability to progress in your academics or your career or it can be impacting your self-worth. 

  • Disputation where you take effort to challenge them by asking yourself how true these thoughts are, or how realistic these beliefs are. 
  • Energization here you take the active effort to change the way you think or think in new perspectives or develop a new way of looking at your failures. It also includes you developing new steps of action that can help you get what you want.

Conclusion

In this blog we have discussed what the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale is. 

We have also discussed what resilience scales are, what resilience is, and what you can do to build resilience.

What does the Connor-Davidson scale measure?

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale is a test that measures how well an individual is equipped to bounce back after stress and traumatic events- basically measuring their resilience.

The scale measures things such as one’s ability to adapt to change, deal with future challenges, cope with stress, and stay focused even while under stress. 

What is the resilience scale for adults?

The RSA, is a resilience scale first authored by Friborg et al. (2003).

It is a self report scale for adults that aims to examine interpersonal and intrapersonal factors that help facilitate resilience. 

This scale has been built on the theory that various factors such as personal/dispositional attributes, family support and other external support systems are what facilitate resilience and the individual ability to bounce back in the face of stress and adversity. 

What is resilience?

Resilience refers to one’s ability to adapt and bounce back from adversity, failure, and conflict. It involves one’s ability and capacity to recover from challenges that affect us in healthy ways.

References

Ackerman. C. How To Measure Resilience With These 8 Resilience Scales. Positive psychology. Retrieved on 20th Feb 2022. https://positivepsychology.com/3-resilience-scales/

Riopel.L.The Connor Davidson + Brief Resilience Scales. Positive Psychology. Retrieved on 20th Feb 2022.https://positivepsychology.com/connor-davidson-brief-resilience-scale/

Nzodom, C. M. (2017). Resilience can’t be taught—but it can be learned. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/residents-blog/resilience-cant-be-taught-it-can-be-learned

Gonzalez, S., Moore, E., Newton, M., & Galli, N. (2015, October 19). Validity and reliability of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in competitive sport. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029215300194

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