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State trait anxiety inventory (A 3 point guide)

The current blogspot will be focused on the question “what is state trait anxiety inventory?”. We will discuss  the structure of the state trait anxiety inventory,  the scoring method of the state trait anxiety inventory and the uses of state trait anxiety inventory. 

What is state trait anxiety inventory?

The state trait anxiety inventory is an inventory based on likert scale rating on 4 point scale. It is a 40 item self administered questionnaire  that measures both the state anxiety and the trait anxiety. 

The inventory is based on 20 items that explore the patterns related to state anxiety and 20 items that explore the patterns related to trait anxiety. 

All items are answered on a 4 point likert scale ranging for the state anxiety ranging from “not at all” to “very much so” and all the items for the trait anxiety are answered on a 4 point likert scale ranging from “almost never” to “almost always”.

Based on the items of the inventory, the two subfacets are further divided on the basis of presence and absence of various factors of anxiety. Thus the inventory yields the following 4 types of  scores through the scoring : 

  • Trait Anxiety Present
  • Trait Anxiety Absent
  • State Anxiety Present
  • State Anxiety Absent

State anxiety is measured  with a context to a situation and it may vary with reference to the context, has a tendency to fluctuate over the time and gets activated in response to the triggering event. 

Whereas the trait anxiety is measured as a personal characteristic of an individual and is a person’s predisposition to the feeling of anxiety. The trait anxiety explains the differences in the individual levels of anxiety and is also responsible for a person’s perception of a non threatening event as catastrophizing and thus exacerbating anxiety-state reactions.

The state trait anxiety inventory questionnaire was developed by psychologists Charles Spielberger, R.L. Gorsuch, and R.E. Lushene in the late 1950s. 

The state trait anxiety inventory can be utilized across various socioeconomic settings. It is used for diagnosis and screening purposes in clinics, educational institutes, research settings and for other research purposes. 

The major focus for the development of the latest version of the state trait anxiety inventory since its first edition in 1983,  was to formulate a type of inventory that has all the test items necessary to diagnose a single type of anxiety.

Currently, the state trait anxiety inventory is available in its translated form in 12 other languages including English, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, and Thai.

What is the objective of state trait anxiety inventory?

The major aim behind state trait anxiety inventory was to formulate a type of inventory that can be used to diagnose certain types of anxiety because at that time, the various inventories that were used only diagnosed a single type of anxiety.

The state trait anxiety inventory is based on three key terms of psychology; 

  • Anxiety
  • State Anxiety
  • Trait Anxiety

Anxiety is defined in the state trait anxiety inventory as feelings of unease, tension, worry and apprehensions. 

State anxiety is referred to as the fear, nervousness and discomfort that results from the activation of the autonomic nervous system due to the triggering effect of various situational contexts. State anxiety is usually considered as temporary as it is based on certain activating events and depends on the way a person perceives the real or imagined threatening situation.

Trait anxiety is a relatively permanent aspect of an individual’s persona. It is referred to as the feelings of discomfort and unease that are experienced by individuals on a day to day basis. The trait anxiety is a person’s ability to react, respond and manage anxiety feelings related to routine life. 

The state trait anxiety form

The state trait anxiety form has 40 questions designed on a 4 point likert pattern and divided into 2 sets of 20 items each. One set of questions is related to measure the state anxiety whereas the other set of questions is related to measure the trait anxiety. 

The state trait anxiety inventory has two different sets of forms known as Form X and Form Y.

The Form X of state trait anxiety inventory is a revised version of the original state trait anxiety inventory .In this form, many of the questions from the original version of the state trait anxiety inventory were replaced to better measure the state anxiety and the trait anxiety. Thus the development of Form X eased in differentiating the patients of depression from anxiety on the basis of the state trait anxiety inventory.

The Form Y of the state trait anxiety inventory on the other hand was developed after further replacing questions from the Form X of the state trait anxiety inventory. The Form Y thus yielded better items that explained state anxiety and trait anxiety in more easy terms. Thus Form Y is currently being used across the platforms more frequently as compared to the Form X. 

The major difference between Form X and Form Y of the state trait anxiety inventory is that Form Y has a relatively simple structure then Form X.  further, the anxiety factors in Form Y are more differentiated and stable then Form X.

What is the scoring method of the state trait anxiety Inventory?

The scoring of the state trait anxiety inventory is based on a 4 point rating Likert scale. 20 items of the state trait anxiety inventory are related to state anxiety whereas 20 items are related to the trait anxiety. The total score ranges from minimum of 20 to maximum of 80. The scoring suggests that the higher the anxiety scores of the individual, the greater will be the individual’s anxiety. 

The state anxiety measuring subtest is referred to as the S-Anxiety scale, whereas the trait anxiety measuring subtest is referred to as T-anxiety scale. 

The 4-point scale for S-anxiety is as follows: 

1.) not at all, 

2.) somewhat, 

3.) moderately so

, 4.) very much so

Whereas  the 4-point scale for T-anxiety is as follows: 

1.) almost never

2.) sometimes

3.) often

4.) almost always

Both the S- anxiety scale and the T-anxiety scale are further based on anxiety absen and anxiety present questions. The anxiety absence questions represent the absence of anxiety like in the questions, “I feel secure” whereas the anxiety present questions represent questions that are based on presence of anxiety like “I feel tensed”. 

On the basis of the score, the anxiety level is divided into : 

  • A low score suggesting low anxiety
  • A median score suggesting medium anxiety
  • A high score suggesting severe anxiety

What are the uses of State Trait Anxiety Inventory?

The uses of State Trait Anxiety Inventory are:

  • To determine levels of state and trait anxiety among adults
  • To evaluate children above grade 6 for their state and trait anxiety 
  • To help clinicians diagnose the type of anxiety
  • To evaluate clinical anxiety among surgeons and medical students
  • To differentiate patients of depression from the patients of anxiety.
  • To conduct research on anxiety patterns and behaviors related to anxiety among various ethnic groups and across various clinical populations.

Conclusion

The current article focused on the various facts and information related to the development of state trait anxiety inventory. We learned the usage, scroing , administration and importance of state trait anxiety inventory. We also discussed the main objective behind the development of the state trait anxiety inventory.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs):State Trait Anxiety Inventory

How do you score state trait anxiety inventory?

The state trait anxiety inventory is scored on the basis of a 4 point likert scale. The score ranges from 20 – 80. On the basis of the score, the anxiety level is divided into : 

A low score suggesting low anxiety
A median score suggesting medium anxiety
A high score suggesting severe anxiety

How is state trait anxiety measured?

The state trait anxiety among children and adults is measured through administering the state trait anxiety questionnaire and scoring it to yield results for the state anxiety subscale and the trait anxiety subscale.

Who developed state trait anxiety inventory?

The state trait anxiety inventory was developed by the following  psychologists : 

Charles Spielberger
R.L. Gorsuch
 R.E. Lushene

Citations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State-Trait_Anxiety_Inventory

http://oml.eular.org/sysModules/obxOml/docs/ID_150/State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3879951/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123749611100028

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